STATE OF THE ART LECTURES
Focus of Lecture: Leader's mental health at work
Sponsoring Division/Section: Div 1: Industrial/Organizational/Work
Affiliation: Queen's University (Ontario, Canada)
Focus of Lecture: Solving the problems of ipsative data: The common framework for proper scaling of comparative response formats
Sponsoring Division/Section: Psychological Assessment and Evaluation
Abstract: To avoid rating biases in personality and similar questionnaires, researchers may use preference response formats. These include the popular forced choice, where respondents rank a number of items, and more complex Q-sorts, where ranking with ties is obtained. Researchers may also collect the extent to which items are preferred to each other, for example by rating items as the “proportion-of-total” (compositional format). Preferences collected with such formats are relative within the person, leading to major psychometric challenges – interpersonally incomparable (ipsative) data. Since measurement of individual differences requires absolute position on the traits of interest, new treatment of ipsative data is required.
The talk will present the Thurstonian scaling approach, which enables proper measurement of individual differences from all types of ipsative data. I will start with the Thurstonian IRT model for forced-choice questionnaires, and extend this IRT model to graded preferences. I will then show how the “proportion-of-total” data can be easily treated in the same Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) framework with continuous outcomes. This unified approach will be demonstrated with empirical data analysis examples, including well-known personality questionnaires. I will conclude with a discussion of best practice in ipsative measurement, including suggestions of good questionnaire designs and considerations for minimizing response biases.
Bio: Anna Brown is a psychometrician with an established reputation and extensive industry experience, currently conducting research and teaching psychological methods at the University of Kent. Anna’s research focuses on modelling response processes to non-cognitive assessments using Multidimensional Item Response Theory (MIRT), including analysis of preference data (e.g. forced-choice questionnaires) and research on response biases.
Anna’s PhD research led to the development of the Thurstonian IRT model, which has been described as a breakthrough in scoring and designing of forced-choice questionnaires, which in the past could not be used for inter-personal comparisons due to the ipsative data they produced. This work received the "Best Dissertation" award from the Psychometric Society in 2011. Applications of this methodology include the development of a new IRT-scored version of the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ32r).
More recently, the Thurstonian scaling approach has been extended from categorical to continuous preference data to deal with “proportion-of-total” (compositional) data, and graded preferences. As of today, Anna’s work spans all existing types of preference response formats, relies on widely available software and shared syntax code, and thus provides an easy-to-apply solution to the problems of ipsative data for research and assessment practice.
Affiliation: Senior Lecturer in Psychological Methods and Statistics & Chair of Ethics, School of Psychology, University of Kent, United Kingdom
Elected Member of the Council of the International Test Commission
Focus of Lecture: Díaz-Guerrero´s contributions to the internationalization of psychology
Sponsoring Division/Section: Div 3: Psychology & Societal Development
Affiliation: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Focus of Lecture: Key Challenges to Understanding Environmental Decision Making.
Sponsoring Division/Section: Environmental
Affiliation: Michigan State University
Martin S. Hagger
Focus of Lecture: Developing a Way to Describe Psychology Theories Applied in Health Behavior Research: A Process Diagram Approach
Sponsoring Division/Section: Sport and Exercise
Abstract: A multitude of social psychological theories have been applied to predict and understand health behavior. The sheer number of available theories presents a considerable challenge to researchers seeking to identify commonality and redundancy in the constructs and processes that determine health behavior. Just as problems of constructs with similar content named differently or different constructs using the same names hinders theoretical progress (c.f., Block’s (1995) ‘jingle’ and ‘jangle’ fallacies), theory development is similarly impeded by problems in operationalizing how constructs relate to each other within theories (e.g., mediating and moderating relations). One proposed solution is to systematize terminology and descriptions of how constructs relate to each other in theories. A system will provide a common means to operationalize the processes by which theory constructs relate to relevant outcomes (e.g., health intentions and behavior) in the health domain. I propose that such a system already exists in the diagrammatic forms offered in confirmatory analytic techniques of path analysis and structural equation modeling (c.f., Hayes, 2013). Application of such a system to describe relations among theory constructs not only provides a common means to operationalize health behavior theories, but also unifies theory with means to analyse data collected to test the theory.
Bio: Martin Hagger is John Curtin Distinguished Professor in the School of Psychology and Speech Pathology at Curtin University and Finland Distiguished Professor (FiDiPro) in the Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Finland funded by TEKES, the Finnish Funding Agency for Innovation. His research applies social cognitive and motivational theories to understand and to intervene and change diverse health behaviours such as physical activity, eating a healthy diet, smoking cessation, alcohol reduction, anti-doping behaviours in sport, and medication adherence. He is also interested in theory development and has made several contributions to advancing social psychological theory including theory integration (e.g., the trans-contextual model and the integrated behaviour change model) and theory relating to ego-depletion. He is Founding Director of the Health Psychology and Behavioural Medicine Research Group at Curtin University and the Laboratory of Self-Regulation (LaSeR). He is also editor-in-chief of Health Psychology Review and Stress and Health and editorial board member of ten other international peer-reviewed journals.
Affiliation: John Curtin Distinguished Professor, Curtin University
Finland Distinguished Professor (FiDiPro), University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
Editor, Health Psychology Review
Co-Editor, Stress and Health
Health Psychology & Behavioural Medicine Research Group &
Laboratory of Self-Regulation (LaSeR)
School of Psychology and Speech Pathology
Faculty of Health Sciences
Curtin University, Perth, Australia
Focus of Lecture: Bullying and Peer Victimization in Children and Youth
Sponsoring Division/Section: Div 5: Education, School & Instruction
Affiliation: University of British Columbia
Focus of Lecture: Advancing Psychological Theory by Mining Big Data
Sponsoring Division/Section: Brain & Cognition
Affiliation: Dept. of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Indiana
Focus of Lecture: TBC
Sponsoring Division/Section: Teaching Psychology
Affiliation: Emory University (Georgia, USA)
Focus of Lecture: Good Practices in Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Health Behavior Change Programs
Sponsoring Division/Section: Div 8: Health Psychology
Abstract: Good practices in formation of health behavior change programs (including interventions and policies) usually account for: applying theories explaining underlying mechanisms, the use of evidence-based underpinnings, evaluating if the hypothesized psychosocial mechanisms indeed explain behavior change, the application of behavior change techniques, and a careful selection of clinically relevant health outcomes. However, a lack of long-term maintenance of behavior change and limited transferability of behavior change programs call for a paradigm shift in health promotion science.
Among others, maintenance and transferability may be achieved by shifting the research and theoretical focus from psychosocial determinants of behavior change to the implementation processes, mechanisms, strategies, and outcomes. The implementation strategies may determine if health promotion programs do affect main health outcomes, but they also determine program’s reach, adoption, maintenance, and sustainability. Thus, good practices in development, implementation, and evaluation of health behavior change programs account for the use of implementation theory and empirical evidence.
An analysis and synthesis of good practices in development, evaluation, and implementation of health behavior change programs will be conducted. The use of implementation theories to plan for the content and delivery of behavior change programs will be discussed. Good practices the assessment of implementation outcomes (e.g., acceptability, adoption, feasibility, fidelity, costs, penetration, and sustainability) will be addressed. Finally, the discussion will focus on planning and accounting for implementation conditions, implementation processes, barriers and facilitating factors.
The lecture will provide an opportunity to gain an insight into the complexity of processes determining effectiveness of health promotion programs. Our state-of-the-art approach focusing on psychosocial behavior change theories, within-individual mechanisms, and techniques addressing on psychosocial skills and cognitions is not sufficiently successful. Going beyond the state-of-the-art and applying good practices in implementation offers a promising perspective to improve science and practice of health behavior change.
Bio: Aleksandra Luszczynska is health psychologist investigating determinants of health behavior change and psychosocial resources facilitating adaptation to chronic illness and traumatic stress. Currently she is professor of psychology at SWPS University, Wroclaw, Poland, and associate research professor adjoint at Trauma, Health, and Hazards Center, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, CO, USA. She held positions at University of Sussex (UK) and Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany). Aleksandra was Editor in Chief of Anxiety, Stress, & Coping: An International Journal and currently she is Editor in Chief of Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being. In 2010-2014 she was President of Division of Health Psychology, IAAP. Her research was funded by national and international organizations (e.g., European Union 7th Framework Program, European Union’s Joint Programming Initiative, Humboldt Foundation). Aleksandra was distinguished with honorary fellowships of European Health Psychology Society and International Association of Applied Psychology. For CV see https://goo.gl/YbU1LW
Affiliation: Warsaw School of Social Sciences and Humanities
Focus of Lecture: Early identification and prevention of dyslexia
Abstract: Highlights of the Jyväskylä longitudinal study of Dyslexia (JLD) will be summarized. JLD is our long term-predictive study of dyslexia which collected developmental data from early age to puberty. The JLD-results reveal that the earliest predictions of difficulties associated with reading acquisition can be made already at 3-5 days of age on the basis of brain responses to sound processing. Very accurate identification of children who will face difficulties in learning to read is possible with simple means, years before reading age. A most accurate and helpful identification of the need for support can be made via dynamic assessment of those first training steps that are necessary for the learning of basic reading skill - learning the connections between spoken and written items. Our Graphogame (GG) technology makes the dynamic assessment and helps children at risk to learn reading skill before they can encounter and experience failure. GG training entails repeated exposure to storing connections between spoken and written language in a game like digital environment (see graphogame.info). Its implementation follows the language-specific content including an optimal phonics approach. Related global efficacy studies precede the use of the game outside of the research context. Today, more than 400 000 children with compromised initial learning (from 2007) have benefited from the GG training in Finland. On a single day, more than 20 000 children are playing the game in Finland. Investigations are running in four continents, in more than 20 countries, including attempts to apply the same basic training principles in an environment with non-alphabetic orthographies. Efficacy studies of two English GraphoGame versions in the UK have recently been published in collaboration with our British colleagues, providing evidence of improvement in literacy skills. Studies have been completed in France and Norway where children are getting it to support their acquisition of the basic reading skill. Today’s new efforts are focused on supporting the final step of reading – learning the efficient mediation of meaning from the written word.
Bio: Heikki Juhani Lyytinen is a professor of psychology at the University of Jyväskylä . He became a professor in 1997. In 2015, he was appointed Unesco Chair at the Agora Center at the University of Jyväskylä, with the aim of promoting international literacy. Lyytinen has been the docent of both Jyväskylä and the University of Helsinki. He has studied learning, especially learning disabilities and learning disabilities in the areas of neuropsychological and psychophysical research. He led together with Jari-Erik Nurmenthe Academy of Finland's Learning and Motivation Research Center, founded in 2006, at the University of Jyväskylä. Lyytine has written (some with others) numerous psychology books and scientific articles. Lyytinen retired in summer 2014. In 2012, he was awarded the Allvar Award. He has a wife and two daughters.
Affiliation: UNESCO professor/UNITWIN chair on Inclusive Literacy Learning for All
University of Jyväskylä & Niilo Mäki Institute, Jyväskylä, Finland
Focus of Lecture: Commitment in the Workplace: Past, Present, and Future
Sponsoring Division/Section: Div. 1:Industrial/Organizational/Work
Abstract: Over the last several decades we have learned a great deal about commitment in the workplace, yet many unanswered questions remain, including some pertaining to the very nature of the construct itself (e.g., its dimensionality and distinctiveness from related constructs such as work engagement). Moreover, there is some question about the relevance of commitment in an era of continuous change. To put the present state of affairs in perspective, I will begin with a brief overview of the evolution of commitment theory and research from its early focus on organizational commitment to the multiple-focus approach that is prevalent today. I will also address developments in research methodology, with emphasis on recent advances that have contributed new insights into the nature, development and consequences of workplace commitments. I will then turn my attention to how the accumulated wisdom from decades of research can be used to guide management practice, even while researchers continue to work toward the resolution of both longstanding and more recent controversies and debates. Indeed, on the practice side, I will argue that interest in commitment can serve as a catalyst for the integration of a broad range of theories (e.g., organizational support, organizational justice, motivation, leadership, person-organization fit) that provide ‘best principles’ to guide ‘best practice.’ I will conclude by discussing the relevance of commitment in the workplace of the future with increasingly rapid changes in technology and workforce diversity.
Bio: John Meyer is Professor and Chair of the Industrial and Organizational (I/O) psychology graduate program at The University of Western Ontario in London, Canada. He also holds a Professorship in management at the Curtin Business School in Perth, Australia. His research interests include employee commitment, engagement, work motivation, well-being, leadership, and organizational change. His work has been published in leading journals in the fields of I/O psychology (e.g., Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology), management (e.g., Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Management), and research methods (e.g., Organizational Research Methods, Multivariate Behavior Research). John is also co-author of Commitment in the Workplace: Theory, Research and Application (Sage Publications, 1997) and Best Practices: Employee Retention (Carswell, 2000), co-editor of Commitment in Organizations: Accumulated Wisdom and New Directions (Routledge, 2009), and editor of the Handbook of Employee Commitment (Edward Elgar, 2016). His work has been cited more than 70,000 times (Google Scholar). John has consulted with private and public organizations in Canada on issues related to his research and has been invited to conduct seminars and workshops in the United States, Europe, Asia, and Australia. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association, Association for Psychological Science, Canadian Psychological Association, International Association for Applied Psychology, and Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.
Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada
Focus of Lecture: Understanding toxic leadership
Sponsoring Division/Section: Div. 3: Psychology and Societal Development
Affiliation: St Andrews, UK
Focus of Lecture: Mental health consequences of terrorist attacks
Sponsoring Division/Section: Div 6 & Clinical; Community
Affiliation: Complutense University of Madrid
Focus of Lecture: Epigenetic processes mediating between environments, experiences and mental health; therapeutic and diagnostic implications
Sponsoring Division/Section: Adult Development & Aging
Affiliation: Pharmacology & Therapeutics, McGill University (Quebec, Canada)
Rama Charan Tripathi
Focus of Lecture: Un-Othering the Other: The Role of Shared Cultural Spaces
Sponsoring Division/Section: Div 3: Psych & Soc Dev
Abstract: Humans are believed to have a tendency to look for essences in persons and groups. This leads them to understand even social categories as natural kinds which have fixed and identity-determining essences. Such a tendency results in the deepening of the perceived differences between own and other groups and a perception of out groups being homogeneous. Essentialist beliefs feed the negative relationship between own-group and the out-group members and give rise to mutual othering.
My focus in this presentation will be on understanding the process of othering and its contra process, un-othering, which facilitates peace building, largely within the context of the Indian society. I shall examine the idea of othering as reflected in various projects of othering, to elucidate how the other results, the factors that underlie motivation for othering, and to what extent the other is an ‘imagined’, ‘invented’ or a ‘constructed’ product. The major thrust of the presentation, however, will be on the process of un-othering and strategies and mechanisms of un-othering which use culture and social norms to create shared cultural spaces. In particular, I shall discuss-
- Does a syncretic cultural identity promote un-othering because it promotes co-sharing of cultural spaces?
- Does ‘bursting the illusion of singular identity’ through plural identities help?
- Does creation of a carnivalesque atmosphere which allows participation in celebrations and mutual humouring help?
- Does positive differentiation of out-group by members of the in-group support the processes of un-othering and make the essentialist beliefs and social groups malleable?
Bio: R.C. Tripathi (Ramacharan Tripathi) is a Fellow of the National Academy of Psychology (India) and also a former National Fellow of the Indian Council for Social Science Research. He was Director of the G.B. Pant Social Science Institute at Allahabad and also Professor and Chair in the Department of Psychology and Center of Social Change and National Development at the University of Allahabad, India He is the Chief Editor of ‘Psychology and Developing Societies’, a journal published by Sage International. The primary focus of his research has been on understanding societal problems of the developing societies. Among his many books are: Organizational studies in India ( with R. Dwivedi, Orient Blackswan, 2016); Perspectives on violence and othering in India (with Purnima Singh, Springer, 2016); Psychology, development and social policy (with Y. Sinha, Springer, 2013); Psychology in Human and Social Development (with J.W. Berry and R.C. Mishra, Sage, 2003); Norm Violation and Intergroup Relations (with Richard de Ridder, Clarendon Press, 1992); Email- firstname.lastname@example.org
Affiliation: Editor, Psychology and Developing Societies,
Former National Fellow (ICSSR),
Ex Director, G.B. Pant Social Science Institute
Ex-Head and Professor, Dept of Psychology, Univ of Allahabad
37/2 Chatham Lines, Hawa Ghar,
Allahabad 211 002. India
Jennifer A. Veitch
Focus of Lecture: How Psychologists can Contribute to Individual Well-being, Organizational Productivity, and Saving the Planet through Better Buildings
Sponsoring Division/Section: Environmental
Abstract: Sustainability is to meet the needs of the present without impeding the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Among the ways in which societies seek to meet sustainability goals is the improvement of building energy-efficiency. Building energy codes mandate stringent energy-efficiency measures for new buildings, but progress is slower for existing buildings, which make up most of the building stock. This address will explore three ways in which psychologists can contribute. First, by working together with engineers and architects we can add to the evidence that with judicious choices of technology, building design, and operation, better buildings that save energy can improve organizational productivity and individual well-being through reduced absenteeism, improved job satisfaction, and other outcomes. Some argue that these benefits should improve the return-on-investment enough to speed renovation choices. Psychologists know that decisions are not simple financial calculations. Thus, second, we can develop and test advanced decision-making models to explain how organizations choose sustainable technologies – and as importantly, what barriers prevent these choices. Third, we can use our communication and behaviour change skills to transfer this knowledge, removing or overcoming barriers that impede a sustainable future in which we too benefit from better buildings.
Bio: Jennifer Veitch is a Principal Research Officer at the National Research Council of Canada, where she has led research into the effects of indoor environment effects on health and behaviour since 1992. Her current research focuses on the effects of better buildings on organizational productivity and on the effects of lighting system characteristics on cognitive performance, mood, and health. Jennifer is a Fellow of the Canadian Psychological Association, the American Psychological Association, the International Association of Applied Psychology, and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. In 2011 she received the Waldram Gold Pin for Applied Illuminating Engineering from the International Commission on Illumination (CIE). In 2012 she received the John C. Service Member of the Year Award from the CPA. She currently serves CIE as Director of its Division 3, Interior Environment and Lighting Design.
Affiliation: National Research Council of Canada
Focus of Lecture: PTSD in physical illness: Physiological, behavioral, and dyadic effects
Sponsoring Division/Section: Div 8: Health Psychology
Abstract: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe emotional reaction to a concrete stressor such as an atrocity perpetrated by human beings or a natural disaster. In recent years much scientific attention has been devoted to exploring the possibility that illnesses might also be regarded as causes of PTSD. However, much debate still exists in the field with regard to the distinctive ways in which PTSD of these origins might manifest itself among both patients and their caregivers. In the current lecture, I wish to suggest that cardiac–disease-induced PTSD (CDI-PTSD) is indeed a valid diagnostic entity. I will start by presenting a thorough literature review of CDI-PTSD, integrating the existing knowledge regarding CDI-PTSD’s prevalence, risk factors, and psychological and physiological consequences. Next, I will present results of qualitative and quantitative studies that have investigated CDI-PTSD among spouses of cardiac patients, and the dyadic processes affecting the emergence and consequences of patients' and partners' CDI-PTSD. I hope this lecture will broaden our understanding of the unique manifestations of PTSD resulting from health crises. Ultimately, the hope is that this kind of comprehensive understanding will be translated into effective interventions for both patients and caregivers.
Bio: Dr. Noa Vilchinsky is a Senior lecturer and the head of the Psycho-cardiology Research Lab Department of Psychology, Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel. She is also a certified rehabilitation psychologist, who worked many years with individuals and families coping with cardiac illnesses. Her main fields of research are psycho-cardiology, dyadic coping with chronic illness, PTSD in illnesses, caregiving in health challenges, attitudes toward people with disabilities, and the importance of being treated with dignity within the medical setting. Her co-authored book: "Caregiving in the Illness Context" was published in 2016 by Palgrave-McMillan.
Affiliation: Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel